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如何查找平行文本

 2019-08-03 08:45:36
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平行文本是指與原文內容相關的文本。査找平行文本可以從宏觀入手,也可以從微觀詞匯入手。比如這篇文章,講的是形象設計、服裝、造型、色彩、飾品,不妨根據這些關鍵詞的英文image design,clothing /garments, style, color, accessories等,用谷歌搜索。經過搜索你會發現維基百科有個詞條,叫fashion design,可以査看。該詞條里面有一些詞匯可以借鑒。同時,煙臺翻譯公司詞條的內容也提醒我們:本篇文章的image design實際上是指personal image design,再査personal image design,會發現有不少從事個人形象設計的公司用的就是這個說法。比如,在http: //www. personalimagedesign. co. uk/中,就可以發現一些相關表述:

Hi and welcome to my website.

My name is Olga and I’m an image consultant who specializes in visual appearances for men and women of all ages. An image consultant counsels individuals and corporate clients on appearance, behavior and communication skills. As I always say... the way you look is my business!

Colour Analysis and Make-up

Colour analysis shows you how to understand colour, by identifying shades which work in harmony with your own colouring. We can all wear every colour but it's about getting the shades right. Some will make you look well whilst others will drain you, learn which are right for you. 

We will show you the right colours of make-up to suit your skin tone. A session takes around 90 minutes and includes a colour swatch with your colours. Colour is the natural way to bring out the best in you.

Image is a visual communication that determines how others see you. Style is the way in which you dress and reflects your personality. You'll be delighted with the way your colours brighten your eyes, enhance your complexion, and flatter your figure. You'll feel confident about the way you shop. It doesn't have to cost a fortune.

從這些平行文本里面,還可以順藤摸瓜,找到更多的平行文本。比如,用 image consultant、colour analysis and make-up 等可以繼續搜索。如果覺得找到平行文本關聯性不大,就換個思路,用別的關鍵詞查找。找不到與整篇文章關聯的文本,可以針對具體的段落來查找,比如,找A-shape,H-shape,Y-shape (shape也是通過閱讀平行文本得到的啟發)可發現:

MyShape breaks body shapes into seven categories: Shape M, Shape Y, Shape S, Shape H, Shape A, Shape P and Shape E.

Once you've figured out which body shape you are, you can then decide to shop on the MyShape site that is full of great fashion at all price points.

運氣好的話,平行文本能夠解決大多數知識和術語問題。閱讀平行文本的另一個好處,是獲得相關文本的行文特點,培養語感。但平行文本不會解決所有問題,總會有一些詞語在平行文本中査不到,這時就需要針對 詞匯做些搜索。比如,可以把英文關鍵詞,如garment, fashion, apparel, glossary, terminology等放在一起,搜索英文術語;也可以用“服裝”、“詞 匯”、“術語”、“亮片”等結合起來搜索中國人整理的漢英對照詞匯;還可把中英文結合起來搜索。比如,用“garment亮片”搜索,會發現“亮片” 的說法是rhinestone或sequin等等。這時不要急于使用rhinestone或sequin, 要在英英詞典或英語平行文本中檢驗這兩個詞是否正確或常用。經查英英 詞典,sequin 的解釋是 a small shining disk or spangle used for ornamentation, as on women’s clothing and accessories or on theatrical costumes. Rhinestone 的解釋是 Rhinestones are shiny, glass jewels that are used in cheap jewellery and to decorate clothes.從英文解釋來看,前者是“片”、后者是“珠”,好 像有區別。用“sequin Wikipedia”搜一下,發現有一篇文章,里面寫道:


Sequins are disk-shaped beads used for decorative purposes. They are available in a wide variety of colors and geometrical shapes. Sequins are commonly used on clothing, jewelry, bags and other accessories....

Although coins are still used as sequins in some cultures, modern sequins tend to be made of plastic. They may also be referred to as spangles, paillettes, or diamantes. Paillettes themselves are commonly very large and flat. Sequins may be stitched flat to the fabric, so that they do not move, and are less likely to fall off; or they may be stitched at only one point, so that they dangle and move easily, to catch more light. Some sequins are made with facets, to increase their reflective ability.

從這里的解釋可以肯定,使用sequin不會錯,而且還有別的說法。有時,在査找單詞的時候,會發現意想不到的線索。比如,査“廓形”的說法,發現百度百科有一篇標題為“廓形”的詞條,其中提到:


克莉斯汀?迪奧曾在50年代推出一系列字母造型時裝,分別用A、H、 Y等英文大寫字母來比擬他作品的廓形。

順藤摸瓜,査到“克莉斯汀?迪奧”的英文說法Christian Dior,再査找這個人的簡歷,看到:

In the 11 years before his death, Dior dictated European style. Each of his collections had a theme 一 the classic suit, the ballerina skirt and the H, A and Y lines that ruled the early 1950's.


再利用這些關鍵詞去核實:

Figure 4-15. Between 1954 and 1955, Dior introduced his alphabet lines: the H Line, the A line, and the Y Line. The H Line was characterized by the controversial Tudor bodice and dropped waistline of the middy. The triangular A Line of 1955 was a huge success and has remained a constant silhouette of fashion ever since. The Y Line did not translate as easlity into American ready-to- wear versions. Basically it was a slender body with a top-heavy Y look. Some versions were inverted, with a slender top teading to a Y bottom profile.


現在發現,前面推測和查證的A-shape Y-shape等說法并不正宗。到此 為止,我們找到了各種造型的祖宗,可以確信無疑地說:A字造型就是A Line. 百度百科同一篇文章還提醒我們“廓形”、“款式”的區別:

服裝廓型所反映的往往是服裝總體形象的基本特征,像是從遠處所看到的服裝形象效果??钍绞欠b構成的具體組合形式,是服裝的細節。


這迫使我們去査找“廓形”、“款式”以及“造型”的準確說法。本篇文章提供了 “廓形”的說法silhouette。詞典上給出的“款式”翻譯包括 design/pattem/style。拿這些詞上網捜索,發現某網站(http://www.dressmakingpattem.net/dressmakingpattem02. php)里面有這樣的描述:

When we talk about the style of fashion clothes, it can also refer to the inspired and elegant relation between the requirements of a particular moment in time/space and the designer's expression of it in line, color, silhouette, and material, translated into an appropriate costume.

詞典上對line的解釋有:

a) the edge or contour of a shape, as in sculpture or architecture, or a mark on a painting,drawing,etc.,defining or suggesting this

b) the sum or type of such contours or marks, characteristic of a style or design 

看了這些解釋,覺得line可以表示“線條”,也可以表示“廓形/造型”。

進一步調査看到:

〔服裝款式style〕指服裝的式樣,通常指形狀因素,是造型要素中的一種。

〔服裝造型modeling〕指由服裝造型要素構成的總體服裝藝術效果。造型要素的劃分,從具體造型分為款式、配色與面料三要素;從抽象造型分為點、線、面、形、體、色、質、光等;從部件分為鞋帽、上衣、下衣、外套、內衣、裝飾品等。

〔服裝輪廓silhouette〕即服裝的逆光剪影效果。它是服裝款式造型的第一視覺要素,在服裝款式設計時是首先要考慮的因素,其次才是分割線、領型、袖型、口袋型等內部的部件造型。輪廓是服裝流行發展中的一個重要因素。(http://www.hxen.com/word/fzfs/2008- 09-26/54478. html)

從這里可以看出:造型是最高層次的概念(因此原文第一小標題就是談的造型),接下來才是款式和廓形的概念。但其中modeling的說法,通過查驗英文文獻,發現并不表達“造型”的意思。在時裝行業,modeling表 示“做時裝模特”。結合上面關于A-Line,H-Line的調査以及翻譯練習中“A 字形造型”等說法,我們可以初步認定:line是“造型”的英文表達。

但根據另一個網站(http: //lifestyle, indianetzone. com/fashion/l/basics _fashion一designing, htm) : A silhouette refers to the outer shape of a garment, “廊形”是shape, “外廓形”是silhouette。

不過,從原文的用詞來看,“造型”、“廓形”似乎無太大區別。因此, 翻譯的時候還是要靈活處理。


從上例可以看出,查找平行文本和調查研究需要花費大量時間,是對譯者耐心和責任心的考驗,有時需要一點點運氣。

査找平行文本,雖然耗費時間,但可以提高質量,從長遠來看,還可以提高效率。這次通過調查研究解決了一些問題,下次再遇到的時候就不用花那么大的力氣。譯員的背景知識和翻譯能力,就是這樣一點一滴積累 起來的。只有在這樣的基礎上,才可以提高效率。


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